Monthly Archives: February 2012

Goodbye GDM (for the moment)

Our school system has been running Fedora on our desktops since early 2008. During that time, our login screen has been managed by GDM and our desktop session has been GNOME. It doesn’t look like our desktop session is going to change any time soon, as we transitioned to GNOME Shell in Fedora 13 and the students and teachers have overwhelmingly preferred it to GNOME 2.

At our school we have a couple of IT policies that affect our login sessions. All lab computers that aren’t logged in have some form of screensaver running (not a black screen) as it helps students identify which computers are on and which aren’t at a glance. It also helps IT see which computers need to be checked. Logged in computers should never have a screensaver running and screen-locking is disabled as we have far more users than computers. Some may argue that these policies should be amended, but, for the moment, they are what they are.

In older versions of Fedora, gnome-screensaver was set to run in gdm with the floating Fedora bubbles coming on after a minute of disuse. The screensaver was inhibited during the login session (I experimented with changing the gconf settings so it didn’t come on for 100 hours and other such nonsense, but inhibiting the screensaver was the only way I found that worked reliably over long periods of time).

With Fedora 16 we now have a much more beautiful new version of GDM, but, unfortunately, the gnome-screensaver that comes with it no longer allows you to actually show a screensaver. I decided to try using xscreensaver instead, but it cannot run in GDM. It keeps complaining that something else is grabbing the keyboard, and I can only assume that something is GDM. Finally, I can’t even write a simple screensaver program in python as it seems I can’t even run a full-screen app over the GDM screen.

Add to all that the fact that we have 1000+ students in the school who are able to log into any lab computer and GDM lists all users who ever logged into the computer. Which theoretically could be 1000. Urgh!

So for our Fedora 16 system, I’ve switched over to lxdm. A quick configuration change to tell it to boot gnome-shell as its default session (and some hacks so it doesn’t try to remember what language the last user used to log in) and it was set. Xscreensaver runs just fine over it and we now have some pretty pictures of Lebanon and the school in a carousel as our login screensaver.

It looks like the screensaver functionality will get merged straight into gnome-shell, and, if it does, we may be able to have extensions that actually implement the screensaver. If that happens, and if GDM re-acquires the ability to not show the user list, we’ll switch back to GDM. Until then, we’ll stick with lxdm.

Now I just need to work out how to inhibit gnome-screensaver during login as gnome-screensaver --inhibit no longer works. I’m sure there was a good reason for removing that code, but for the life of me I can’t work out what it was…

A brave new world (of traffic shaping)

Traffic through a bottleneck

When administering a network of hundreds of computers, phones and tablets that all share a 3 Mbit/s link, one of the more important requirements is some form of traffic shaping. In fact, when you’re watching your emails download at a cool rate of five words a minute because someone is uploading the complete works of Shakespeare (the Blu-ray edition) onto YouTube, the choice becomes that of traffic shaping or homicide. While homicide is the easy option, unfortunately it has become illegal in most countries, so we have to go with the hard option if we want to avoid jail time.

The idea behind traffic shaping isn’t that complex. Imagine that each packet you send and receive is a car and your internet connection is the highway. Now, imagine that your highway has no lines painted on it and that every car pushes its way through as fast as possible. If you only have a few cars on the highway, this setup works fine. Traffic gets through as quickly as possible as there’s no build-up at either end. This is a normal connection with no traffic shaping.

Now, imagine this same highway with a huge amount of traffic. Two words: Traffic jam. Traffic gets backed up at the end of the highway, and, due to the lack of organization, everybody (including the emergency services) has to wait until they’ve managed to push their way through. Obviously not a very optimal way to organize traffic. This is a normal connection when you’re uploading or downloading a movie. Everything else slows to a crawl.

The thing is, not all traffic is created equal. In the real world, we’d like to think that emergency services will be able to make it through any traffic jam quickly, and most of us wish that the truck convoys would get off the road when traffic is really bad. In the same way, some internet traffic depends on being delivered in realtime (think Skype, video conferencing or SSH sessions), while normal traffic should be reasonably fast (think web browsing), and some traffic is best allowed through only when the road is empty (think large downloads or P2P stuff).

Traffic shaping allows us to separate our metaphorical highway into multiple lanes that can expand or shrink depending on need within limits that we set. And in our school, we need lots of lanes. You see, normally you would split your traffic into the three segments listed above, but we want to have our traffic split among teachers, students and guests, with each of their lanes further split in the above segments (realtime, normal, slow).

For the last few years we’ve used a CentOS 5 box running a customized version of the Wonder Shaper script to shape our traffic, but (mainly because of my deficiencies) it’s not quite been the wonder we’ve been looking for. Slow teacher traffic was put into the fast student lane and a guest watching a YouTube video would slow down the net for everyone else.

After some major problems adopting our Wonder Shaper script to multiple WANs (we have two ISPs, one giving us 2M/1M and the other 1M/512K), I finally decided to look around and see what the alternatives were. PfSense is something that I had been playing around with and I decided to try its traffic shaping capabilities.

It’s amazing! You create queues (lanes in our metaphorical highway), and each queue can contain other queues. So we have a teacher’s queue, a student’s queue, a guest queue and a few other top level queues. Inside each top-level queue is a set of child queues for realtime, normal and slow internet. For example, our teachers get an average bandwidth of 30% and a maximum bandwidth of 50%. In other words, if our internet connection is being fully utilized, teachers will get 30%. If nobody is on the net at all, teachers can get up to 50%. But, it gets even better. Within these percentages, realtime stuff gets 30% of the teacher’s bandwidth, normal web stuff gets another 30%, junk (Facebook, YouTube) gets 25% with a hard limit of 60% of the teachers’ maximum bandwidth, and any bulk stuff gets 15% with a hard limit of 30% of the teachers’ maximum bandwidth.

Duplicate the same percentages for the students, and then again for our guests (except they get a lower average bandwidth and much lower maximum bandwidth) and you get the picture. Add in the bandwidth set aside for our servers, and you end up with lane rules that are incredibly complex, but with smoothly-moving traffic that doesn’t get piled up at either end of the highway. And you didn’t have to kill anyone to achieve it.

If there’s interest, I’ll publish a more technical post including a partial rule list and explain how I got this mess to work with squid (which was necessary for being able to sort the different web destinations into different queues).